Tag Archives: project management

Architecting A C# Web-Based Application: Introduction

I am beginning a series of articles on architecting a “serious business” web-focused application. The raison d’être for this is because I have been unable to find a focused, well-documented sample project that exposes practical architecture and guidelines. The overall goal is to put myself on the line as a guinea pig, journal my thought process at every step, take the abuse and, hopefully, generate some positive discussion on the choices I make along the way. The secondary goal is to provide intermediate developers an example of how to approach a common type of project. As such, the series will not be an exploration of cutting-edge technologies, or of advanced coding techniques.

The sample application will be a project management application that follows the great majority of the basic Scrum principles, allows a development team to better manage their workload, and also maximizes the offload of data entry and organizing to the stakeholders as much as possible. I know that this type of application exists in umpteen forms on the net. Let’s face it, it’s basically the “enterprisey” equivalent of Tetris. However, I selected it for three main reasons:

  • The project is a neither too complex, nor uselessly simple in scope
  • It is a domain that should not be foreign to a readership composed of developers
  • I need a good app that fits the way my team works, rather than the overly generic and bloated PM software out there. While this may seem selfish, it’s actually good! I’ll be eating my own dogfood.

I think many developers don’t enjoy the use of most of the PM software out there because they become responsible for too much maintenance/clerical work. Not many packages out there put as much responsibility for the project in the hands of the stakeholders, and if they do, invariably they charge for more licenses. We’ll start simple, focus on providing a great UI, and won’t involve feature-creep just to gain bullet points on a sales presentation. Ultimately, the code base will be provided at large as an open-source project.

The whole solution will consist of your typical moving parts:

  • A web-based client where the majority of the interaction with the system is done, especially the collaborative parts.
  • A task bar application that allows quick data entry, primarily by developers, for common functions.
  • A middle layer built to handle the above two clients, and open for more. This will be where all the rules, workflows, transformations and other tasks happen. This will also force one to consider how to build the layers.
  • The database layer, obviously used to persist data.

The minimal functionality we will provide for a “v1.0” is:

  • The ability to work with the four general “things” found in Scrum: roles, timeboxes, artifacts and rules.
  • Allow business users to easily log ideas (a.k.a. user stories) and track the status thereof.
  • A robust and customizable workflow system for managing rules that, while not very dynamic, should be open to some amount of customization.
  • Some dashboarding for some simple metrics.
  • While we won’t aim to provide a full interactivity suite, it would be nice to build in a way to have a threaded discussion area for each idea or story, such that devs and users can collaborate and flesh out ideas in a way that doesn’t create an email nightmare.
  • A cross-platform, browser-based user interface with a form-based authentication system.
  • Optionally integrate logins with AD or other LDAP system.
  • A small taskbar application that helps you track what you are currently working on and gives feedback on changes in the app.

As you can see, this is not a simple throw-away project. But, neither is it a highly-complex, enterprise application. I hope that this series can help junior and intermediate .NET developers get a feel for how to approach the design of a web application, elevate my own game through feedback both high and low, and for intermediate to senior developers to collaborate on different approaches effectively by having the constraint of a defined scope in play. (Lots of times, comments on blogs like this run the gamut because some people are thinking of more complex projects than others.)

The next articles will cover the typical questions you (should?) have when you kick of a project:

  • What exactly am I talking about? Let’s spend some time on some diagramming and scoping to understand the larger moving parts. We’ll obviously iterate and refactor to get it right along the way, and so let’s not paralyze ourselves early, but we do need to establish some common language between the participants.
  • What tools am I going to use? For example, what framework will we use to get data in and out of our application? And, why? Another example is the many forms of IoC containers out there. Which one and why?
  • How am I going to structure all this practically? Let’s talk about overarching principles/methodologies that we will choose to apply on this project. Let’s also establish the subprojects in the overall solution from a technical standpoint.

Please, if you have any suggestions or comments, serve them up now! Especially if there’s anything in particular, top-level, that you think should be included. And, I hope you join me actively in subsequent posts.

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Outsourced Or In-House Developers?

So, you have a workload of software projects, a veritable plethora of projects to get off your plate. Or, maybe you are considering an expansion of your capabilities. Your current team is tapped out… hopefully not overworked and tired; you don’t want to break their backs.

WARNING: I will be using the word “outsourcee” to refer to any entity not in-house performing work on behalf of your company. There’s nothing wrong with the word itself, although it’s full of negative connotations of lost jobs, cheap labor and evil executives. But, if you are a die-hard isolationist or a nationalist, you will be unable to read further. You have been warned. 🙂

You’re looking at various reasons and wondering if you should hire more in-house developers, or farm out. Here’s the top-level factors I look at to help me decide when to farm the work out. Of course, this is all from an SMB point-of-view; larger companies have a completely different perspective and set of tests to check against.

  • Niche/Esoteric Skills: If the project involves some fringe technology, or unique skill set that will not see much re-use in-house, then farm it out. Note that this could be an emerging technology, or an old one that would bore your in-house team to tears. Usually, hiring in-house for this is a big challenge anyways…
  • Time-To-Market Pressure: If the project involves the need to get something out before competitors claim the territory, farm it out. You should seek an outsourcing shop that will properly staff up so as to get your project out in the time frame you set for it. You’ll pay through the nose, but that may be the difference between sick or swim…
  • Overwhelming Workload: Obviously, one reason to consider farming out is if you have a large spike in the overall short-term workload. This is quite common in small businesses. Instead of slowing down and stretching thin, just bring in short-term, contract-based workers to shore up your team(s).
  • One-off or Short-Term Project: If the project is a side-bar to a core project, or some “throw-away” task where ongoing maintenance is not going to be an issue, consider farming it out and don’t bog down your core, in-house team(s) with it.
  • Experience Gain: You may want to consider randomly outsourcing the “easy, non-critical ones” just to gain experience with outsourcing options in your local area, or the broader market, simply so that you then know a little bit more about who to go to when it really counts.

There are undoubtedly more reasons, but I think these are the main, big ones. The more these reasons exist in any one project, the more you should consider farming out the work. Otherwise, don’t. It is better, and less costly, to go in-house. No really!

First, less face it, every dollar you spend creates/elevates talent in some individual, and it is generally best to keep that talent close to your vest rather than see it go to another company, especially a competitor.

Second, there’s more to developers than churning out code, even the so-called “boilerplate” stuff. Being able to effectively understand and translate requirements and interact with business users comes, in large part, from close familiarity with the people and the processes, a.k.a. the “ramp-up” or “learning curve”, and the short feedback cycle that comes from being in-house. These two have had a larger, empirical, hard-to-measure impact on any team’s performance than anything else. It doesn’t help the “super-awesome outsourced guru” if he has to wait two days for an email reply on a process issue from some department because they are swamped with some monthly peak of work. Every time you farm out, you’ll hit this over and over again. In-house is undoubtedly both a short-term and long-term investment. Treat it as such.

Lastly, contrary to the typical assumption I hear, farming out is usually not cheaper. A good, in-house team will simply cost less than an equivalent, good outsourced team, even if you consider all indirect costs. My off-the-cuff, empirical, “from-the-SMB” conversion factor is that outsourced is 2-4x more than in-house. One main problem is that because the outsourcing market, even post-dotcom bubble, has an incredibly high markup on IT work. Unfortunately, the perception that outsourcing is cheaper is because the comparison is usually between a bad, in-house team and a good outsourced consultancy.

If you are going to farm it out, the next question typically becomes who to farm out to. There are four general categories:

  • Freelancers: These are the “unincorporated” outsourcees that cost on the low-end of my conversion factor. They usually don’t have much overhead to worry about because the job isn’t their primary source of income. Lots of developers from large, status-quo-loving companies want to expand their skills and so pick up work on the side. Or, out-of-work, between-job developers will take on short-term contracts to fill the income gap. The main and dominant problem is the lack of accountability on multiple levels, from the personal involvement to the legal ramifications if they drop out on you. If you don’t know any freelancers, consider shopping on websites like Rent-A-Coder.
  • Local Outsourcee: The local outsourcee is a local, incorporated shop, usually with a smallish team or teams, that makes a living providing recurrent, happy IT service. They are usually not cheap, because of their business overhead. However, as a manager, if I can’t keep the capital in the house, I sure try to keep it in the neighborhood, because it eventually comes back to us. I’m not talking about “paying it forward” (although if that does happen, then great!), just that a vibrant local economy is indirectly good for my business. On a selfish level, it also helps me build out my local personal and corporate network of contacts.
  • Remote Outsourcee: There are all sorts of levels of outsourcing here, ranging from neighboring states, to neighboring countries to full use of sweatshops in Central Nepal. If you are an SMB, you should really not go to this option, unless you have a direct reference to an active shop used actively by another SMB you know and trust. I have heard too many horror stories of SMBs burned by this kind of outsourcing. The problem is that lots of these big offshore consultancies are driven by big customers and you’ll simply get lost in the mix. The smaller, satellite consultancies that emerge in such areas are usually unable to serve you properly because the big shops drain the area of real talent. The former is exorbitantly expensive, the latter is expensive in terms of direct cost due to the inevitable mess-ups. You’d be surprised how not cheap offshore work in places like India has become.
  • Internship: Don’t forget to consider using variants of the idea of internship. The concept is that you get some raw talent and let him/her beat his head on a project in exchange for a low wage and a great reference. Like farming out locally, there’s a lot of goodwill generated in this route. You may find your next hire in an intern; you certainly may find out who not to hire too. Each individual will hopefully go on to speak highly of you to other students or junior co-workers, generating potential future hiring opportunities. But, if you want to do this right, don’t hire just to stick a kid in the corner cube, and leave him or her to sink-or-swim. What you save in hard dollars will have to be spent in your own or senior developer’s hand-holding time.

This pretty much sums up how I consider outsourcing, short of a lengthier novella on the subject.

One last warning: Be open with the work and get your team’s opinion on farming out any work. Don’t let them hear about it indirectly and give them the opportunity to step up if they want and can deliver. Psychologically, from a morale point-of-view, keeping your team out of the loop is a big no-no.

What are your experiences? Do they match up with the above?